Spatial Tech Standards 1: Directional Terms

Spatial Tech Requirements 1: Directional Phrases

This collection is designed to indicate how a pill (on this case an iPad, however the identical is true with any pill) can be utilized to systematically educate essential academic expertise that bleed over into all topics. These basis expertise must be particularly taught and launched early – beginning with preschoolers! These expertise lay the groundwork to help tech expertise for college kids who’re blind and low imaginative and prescient that align with the Nationwide Know-how Requirements. (See publish  Tech Requirements: Why Educate Digital Ideas Early?) Understand that College students LEARN to entry Know-how till 3rd grade after which USE TECHNOLOGY to entry studying.

This collection will introduce digital spatial ideas beginning with age-appropriate expertise for preschoolers (directional phrases) and can cowl the pre-requisite spatial ideas that BLV college students should absolutely perceive to achieve success with coding ideas, O&M routes, spreadsheets, increased math, and extra. Let’s begin initially with directional phrases for preschool youngsters.

Toddlers naturally be taught useful positional phrases akin to “up” after they wish to be picked up and “down” when they need down. Widespread directional phrases that toddlers and preschoolers hear day by day are: In, on, over, beneath, behind, beneath, above, subsequent to, close to, far, and the checklist goes on! When in search of a desired object, college students with imaginative and prescient rapidly be taught to look within the route {that a} dad or mum is pointing; nevertheless, BLV college students be taught to observe verbal instructions with directional phrases. As a result of directional phrases have essential which means, BLV preschoolers usually be taught left and proper earlier than their sighted friends; these sighted friends usually are usually not per left and proper till kindergarten. Preschool requirements embody a variety of directional and positional phrases. Since we’re taken with digital directional phrases, we are going to deal with these 7 directional phrases: high, center, backside, left, heart, proper, and nook. 

Be aware: The phrases ‘center’ and ‘heart’ are sometimes interchangeable, particularly when working with younger college students. Technically, there’s a distinction:

  • Center – is the half-position between two horizontal traces.
  • Middle – is the half-position between two vertical traces.

In technical fields akin to engineering or structure, there’s a distinction:

  • Middle – is the precise heart of a circle or diagram.
  • Center – is a extra normal time period.

Tactile Actions

As educators, you’re already doing spatial actions along with your college students. Listed here are a number of concepts to indicate the systematic development of instructing spatial ideas to younger college students who’re blind or low imaginative and prescient.

As all the time, college students ought to first be launched to spatial ideas utilizing manipulatives. Actions may embody “cover and search” kind recreation. Place a toy or object in particular locations on a ebook shelf. Instance: Ask the scholar to search out the toy truck on the highest shelf. The place was the truck? (All the time have the scholar verbalize the place the thing was positioned – utilizing a whole sentence if age-appropriate!) Then ask the scholar to “cover” the toy by inserting the toy in a particular place. As the scholar progresses, give a two-part route. Instance: Ask the scholar to search out the toy truck that’s on the highest shelf on the left. If the scholar wants extra prompts otherwise you wish to change the sport and never give the scholar a clue as to the place (or what) the thing is, give “scorching/chilly” kind instructions – as the scholar strikes nearer to the specified object, repeat your spatial time period however say it sooner or louder when he’s nearer and slower/softer when he’s farther away. Instance: If the specified object is to the left of the scholar, say “left . . . left . . . left” slowly and as he strikes nearer, say “left” sooner! Bear in mind, you may give extra instructions akin to “up” and even preliminary route of “nook”!

As soon as the scholar has mastered discovering and inserting actual objects in areas across the room, transfer to 2-dimensional actions. Instance: Discover the star (tactile sticker) on a web page.  Place the sq. sticker on the backside of the web page. Magnetic boards or Velcro boards additionally work nicely for these actions!

Preschool and kindergarten school rooms typically have college students full worksheets with spatial phrases. On this publish, ProCreate App 2: Actions, Worksheets, and Books publish, a TVI shares how she created worksheets for college kids who require a tactile format and for college kids who want massive print/uncluttered worksheets. Obtain and use her worksheets from this publish!

Be aware: For those who create spatial worksheets, please share them on Paths to Know-how – let’s construct our Tactile Photos/Worksheets Useful resource Library!

Image1: Cat minimize and paste visible worksheet with cat photos and clean packing containers beneath on the primary web page and spatial phrases on the second web page. 

Picture 2: Easy black line drawing of canine above a firetruck  – superb for PIAF machine (picture enhancer machine).

Simple black line drawing of dog and firetruck images - ideal for PIAF machine.

Toddler/Preschool Directional Phrases Exercise: Child Musical Palms App

In a current course primarily based on the ABC’s of iOS: A VoiceOver Guide for Toddlers and Past, taking part TVIs have been deliberately and systematically introducing the directional phrases to very younger college students (2 years and older) as they explored and interacted with apps on the iPad. Essentially the most fundamental stage app is the Discover Degree; college students can contact wherever on the display screen, utilizing any variety of fingers/physique elements, and maintain for any period of time. My favourite Discover Degree app to introduce digital directional phrases is the Child Musical Palms app. On this app, there’s a crimson row on the high of the display screen, a yellow row within the center and blue row on the backside. Contact the crimson space to listen to drum sounds, the yellow space to listen to piano notes and the blue space for guitar notes. Every row has 5 squares operating left to proper. As you contact throughout (left to proper) on the yellow and blue rows, the sound in every sq. has a better pitch. Every drum sq. has a unique sound/pitch (snare drum, base drum, cymbals, and so on.).

Initially, the aim of Child Musical Palms is for the younger little one to easily work together with and benefit from the trigger and impact sounds. This straightforward recreation can be utilized to construct unbiased play/interplay on the iPad – a essential expertise as many younger BLV college students wait to be prompted each step of the way in which. Encourage the kid to discover everywhere in the display screen so as to hear the totally different sounds. Strive dragging a finger – in a straight line – throughout the display screen, staying throughout the identical row (instrument). As the scholar explores, identify the place he’s touching utilizing directional phrases. Mannequin this as nicely (contact the highest of the display screen and say, “The drum is on the high”. Ask the scholar to search out the drum. Mirror what the scholar performs – touching the identical squares in the identical rhythm whereas verbalizing what you’re doing. Play a 2 or 3 observe rhythm and ask the scholar to repeat it. Hum or sing the notes. Introduce the idea of a nook. Encourage the scholar to bear in mind the place his favourite sounds are bodily positioned on the display screen.

Be aware: When working with younger toddlers, the preliminary aim is simply to introduce the phrases to the scholars – with no expectation that the scholar will absolutely perceive the spatial idea. Nevertheless, these actually younger youngsters typically decide up spatial phrases surprisingly fast!

[Image: 4 year old Karson is using three fingers to tap on the red row (top, middle) in the Baby Musical Hands app.]

4 year old Karson sitting at a table with three fingers tapping the red row at the top, middle of the iPad screen in the Baby Musical Hands app.

Child Musical Palms app within the App Retailer

Child Musical Palms app in Google Play

Bear in mind, the ability of a contact display screen is that you understand precisely WHERE you’re on the display screen!

Child Musical Palms Objectives

When particularly taught, Child Musical Palms app can be utilized to show these objectives:

  • Exploring the display screen
  • Unbiased and intentional interplay
  • Trigger and impact
  • Directional phrases/ideas
  • Remoted finger – faucet gesture
  • Drag gesture
  • Drag in a straight line
  • Psychological mapping (remembering the place favourite sounds are bodily positioned)
  • Directional ideas

Working towards Directional Phrases

For college kids who perceive directional phrases, embed these phrases into extra iPad (contact display screen) classes. 

College students can follow utilizing directional phrases inside nearly any app. Listed here are some examples of favourite apps for younger college students who’re blind or low imaginative and prescient:

  • I Hear Ewe App (the place particular animals are positioned)
  • Peakaboo Barn App (faucet in the midst of the display screen)
  • E book apps (flip the web page in backside proper nook)
  • Wheels on the Bus by Duck, Duck Moose (to search out varous lively areas on every web page)
  • Animal Band app (the place every interactive instrument is positioned)

When introducing a pupil to search out and choose an app on the Dwelling display screen, inform the scholar typically the place the app is positioned (high, center backside of display screen) and educate the scholar to start on the lookout for that app in that space as an alternative of flicking or dragging by way of all of the apps on the display screen. Instance: If the app is on the left aspect of the display screen, particularly educate the scholar to pull down alongside the left fringe of the column as an alternative of utilizing quite a few proper swipes.

Bear in mind the objectives for Child Musical Palms? Hold these objectives in thoughts, as they need to be utilized to all apps and tech classes for younger college students!  

Making use of Directional Phrases to Core Topics

Are directional phrases necessary to core topics like studying, writing and math? Completely! Pre-braille expertise embody understanding the spatial relationships of the 6 dots in a braille cell. Examples: Dot 1 is the highest left dot within the braille cell. Studying requires beginning on the high left and shifting to the suitable. When studying to depend, younger youngsters typically transfer manipulatives from a bunch on the left to the group on the suitable (or high/backside). Understanding directional phrases is step one of understanding spatial expertise required for studying rows, columns, grids, tables, and so on. See different posts on this collection for the subsequent step!


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